What is a Quality of Earnings Report (QOE)?

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A Quality of Earnings (QoE) report is a financial analysis tool used in due diligence that evaluates the quality of a company's earnings based on Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). The report provides a detailed analysis of a company's financial statements, including its income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. 

The purpose of a QoE report is to help investors, analysts, and other stakeholders to assess the accuracy and sustainability of a company's earnings under GAAP standards, identify potential issues or risks related to the company's earnings quality, and make informed investment or lending decisions. By conducting a QoE report, stakeholders can perform a more thorough due diligence process to evaluate the true financial health of a company and negotiate a better deal based on a more complete and accurate financial picture.

Understanding the quality of earnings report is critical for investors and other stakeholders. Companies can use various accounting methods to manipulate their financial statements and make their earnings look better than they actually are. A QoE report can help to identify these manipulations and reveal a more accurate picture of the company's true financial health. This information is critical for making informed investment decisions and avoiding potential losses.

Example of Earnings Manipulation

Earnings manipulation is a deceptive practice where a company uses accounting techniques to artificially inflate or manipulate its reported earnings. One example of earnings manipulation is "cookie jar accounting," where a company deliberately uses reserves from a previous quarter and records them as earnings in subsequent quarters to make it appear as if the earnings are higher than what they actually are. This creates an illusion of smooth and consistent earnings growth, which can attract investors and boost the company's stock price.

Other examples of earnings manipulation include revenue recognition fraud, channel stuffing, and off-balance sheet financing. It is important for investors and other stakeholders to be aware of these tactics and to conduct their own analysis of a company's financial statements to identify potential signs of earnings manipulation

How Does a QOE Report Differ from an Audit?

A Quality of Earnings (QoE) report is often confused with an audit, but they are distinct financial analysis tools. An audit is a review of a company's financial statements to ensure that they are accurate and comply with accounting standards. In contrast, a QoE report goes beyond an audit to evaluate the quality of a company's earnings, including key operating metrics, sustainability and predictability of its revenue and cash flows. 

A QoE report can uncover hidden risks and uncertainties that may not be apparent from a company's financial statements alone, and it can help investors and other stakeholders make more informed decisions. While an audit is typically required by law or regulation, a QoE report is optional and is usually commissioned by investors or other interested parties.

Why is a Quality of Earnings Report Important?

The benefits of a QoE report include providing investors, analysts, and other stakeholders with a more accurate picture of a company's financial health. The report can help to identify potential risks and uncertainties that may not be apparent from the company's financial statements alone. It can also provide insights into the company's business model and its ability to generate sustainable earnings over the long term.


Why Buyers (or Lenders or Investors) Might Request a Quality of Earnings Report

Buyers, lenders, or investors may request a Quality of Earnings (QoE) report to gain a deeper understanding of the target company's financial performance and to evaluate the potential risks and opportunities associated with an investment or lending decision. By conducting a QoE report, buyers can identify any potential issues or risks related to the company's earnings quality, such as non-recurring or unusual expenses, one-time revenue recognition, or aggressive accounting practices. This information can help buyers to make more informed investment or lending decisions, and to negotiate a better deal by identifying areas of concern or potential value. 

A QoE report can also help investors to assess the sustainability and predictability of a company's earnings, which can impact the company's valuation and future growth prospects. Additionally, a QoE report can provide lenders with valuable insights and information that can help them assess the creditworthiness and risk profile of the company, which can impact the terms and conditions of a loan. Overall, a QoE report can provide buyers, lenders, and investors with valuable information that can help them make more informed decisions and achieve better outcomes in their investment or lending transactions.

How is a Quality of Earnings Report Prepared?

A Quality of Earnings (QoE) report is prepared using a methodology that involves a detailed analysis of a company's financial statements, accounting policies, and other relevant data. The analysis is typically conducted by a team of experienced financial analysts who specialize in the preparation of QoE reports. The methodology may vary depending on the specific requirements of the report and the industry in which the company operates.

The process of preparing a QoE report typically involves several stages, including data collection, analysis, and reporting. The analysts may review the company's financial statements, conduct interviews with key personnel, and analyze relevant industry data to gather the necessary information. The data is then analyzed using various financial analysis tools and techniques to identify any irregularities or issues that may impact the quality of the company's earnings.

In order to complete QoE report, an accountant may request the following information: 

Limitations of Quality of Earnings Report

While QoE reports are a valuable financial analysis tool, they do have some inherent limitations. The report is based on historical data and may not reflect the current or future financial performance of the company. The report may also be impacted by accounting policies and other factors that are not disclosed in the financial statements.

There are also some risks associated with QoE reports. The report may be impacted by errors or omissions in the data used in the analysis. There may also be a risk of bias or subjectivity in the analysis, particularly if the analysts have a relationship with the company being analyzed.

To mitigate the limitations and risks of QoE reports, it is important to use reliable and independent data sources and to employ a rigorous methodology in the analysis. It is also important to disclose any potential conflicts of interest and to ensure that the analysts conducting the analysis are independent. 


The importance of a QoE report cannot be overstated. It provides a more accurate and complete picture of a company's financial health, identifies potential risks and uncertainties, and helps investors make informed investment decisions. In addition, QoE reports play a critical role in mergers and acquisitions by helping acquirers to evaluate the financial health of the target company.

For those interested in learning more about QoE reports and their role in financial analysis, there are several resources available. Some recommended reading includes "Quality of Earnings: The Investor's Guide to How Much Money a Company is Really Making" by Thornton L. O'glove and "Quality of Earnings: An Overview" by PwC. Additionally, financial experts in the field can provide valuable insights and perspectives on the topic.

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Sam Domino
Sam Domino
Transaction Advisor

Sam is an exit planning expert, combining years of experience working with small business owners with extensive knowledge of traditional and SBA financing.

Information posted on this page is not intended to be, and should not be construed as tax, legal, investment or accounting advice. You should consult your own tax, legal, investment and accounting advisors before engaging in any transaction.